Europe has traditionally been one of the major destinations of immigration mainly due to its relative economic prosperity and political stability. According to World Migration report 2020 Europe experienced the second largest growth during 2019, with an increase of 25 million international migrants (5.5 %) of the 448 million people living in the EU-27 were non-EU-27 citizens. Given these figures, migration must be treated as a global issue. That said, the increase in migrants has been evident over time – both numerically and proportionally – and at a slightly faster rate than previously anticipated. Regarding the gender distribution of immigrants to the EU-27 Member States in 2018 women migrated as much as men, almost half (46%) of all international migrants were female. (Eurostat, May 2020) On the other hand, women face specific difficulties at different stages of migration.
According to UNFPA (United nations Populated Fund) migration is a serious concern for migrant women for different motives:
- Migrant women face double discrimination – as women and as migrants. Women can suffer doubly from these attitudes, experiencing not only discrimination based on their migrant status but also based on based on their gender. This can take the form of discrimination and mistreatment – including sexual harassment – in the workplace, while seeking housing, while using public transportation, and while accessing education and health services.
- Female migrants face major risks, including sexual exploitation, trafficking and violence. Migrant women are particularly vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, accounting for 71% of trafficking victims, according to a 2018 report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
- Migrant women are more likely to face health problems at their destinations. When female migrants reach their intended destinations, they face barriers to health care, especially sexual and reproductive health services.
EMMW is a training plan for the purpose of developing and managing emotional skills in the frame of the immigration, reaching both female migrants and social workers and NGO with the aim of improving their risk situation in the adaptation and integration to a different country from that of their origin and, at the end, psychological well-being and the inclusion in the host country. The training system must be developed in these two lines in complementary ways, but they must be faced paying attention to the different target groups and the specific way they have to develop this basic skill.